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Parentheses in scientific writing



Published on April 14, 2015 by Shane Bryson. Revised on July 26, 2022. Parentheses are used to add extra information in a sentence. In academic writing, they are most often used to convey technical information such as equations, to introduce acronyms, and for parenthetical citations.

What are parentheses used for in science?

Uses of Parentheses



Parentheses can separate a detail from the main point of writing, or they can give extra information. Parentheses are also used in mathematics and symbolic logic. In addition to extra information, parentheses can contain clarifications, details, or asides.

How do you use parentheses in a research paper?

Parentheses

  1. Use parentheses around nonessential information or abrupt changes in thought. …
  2. If the information in parentheses requires a question mark or an exclamation mark, use the mark inside the parentheses only if the sentence ends with a different mark. …
  3. Use parentheses to clarify preceding words.

Should you use parentheses in an abstract?





You can always edit an abstract slightly to your benefit using square brackets: The atomistic [micro-]scale shall be considered. It’s a widely accepted way of editing abstracts to help with context. For example it’s used when written news wants to add clarity to direct quotes.

When should I use parentheses in writing?

Parentheses are used to enclose incidental or supplemental information or comments. The parenthetical information or comment may serve to clarify or illustrate, or it may just offer a digression or afterthought. Parentheses are also used to enclose certain numbers or letters in an outline or list.

Are parentheses unprofessional?

Dashes and parentheses should be used sparingly in formal academic writing. Parenthetical statements especially should be avoided because if something is important enough to be in the sentence, it should be fully part of that sentence.

Can I use () in APA?

Parentheses Basics



Parentheses are punctuation marks used to set off information within a sentence. There are several uses for parentheses that are particular to APA style: To refer to tables or figures. Use parentheses to encase referrals to tables or figures.



What can I use instead of parentheses?



A pair of em dashes can replace a pair of parentheses. Dashes are considered less formal than parentheses; they are also more intrusive. If you want to draw attention to the parenthetical content, use dashes. If you want to include the parenthetical content more subtly, use parentheses.

How do you write a scientific style?

Clear scientific writing generally follows a specific format with key sections: an introduction to a particular topic, hypotheses to be tested, a description of methods, key results, and finally, a discussion that ties these results to our broader knowledge of the topic (Day and Gastel 2012).

How do you write a good scientific abstract?

Key Steps to Plan Writing an Abstract [4]

  1. Introduction—what is the topic?
  2. Statement of purpose?
  3. Summarize why have other studies not tackled similar research questions?
  4. How has the research question been tackled?
  5. How was the research done?
  6. What is the key impact of the research?


What are the 4 functions of parentheses?

Parentheses perform four basic functions in written American English: enclose numbers and letters in a list, enclose clarifications, introduce emphasizations, enclose asides and additional information.

Can you use brackets in academic writing?

Writers use brackets in academic writing to add information to a quote without changing the meaning of the sentence. This means that the writer can add words, if necessary, to make the sentence clearer or add a correction or comment to quoted material.

Should I use parentheses or commas?

Commas and Parentheses Aren’t Always Used Together



Commas and parentheses are often used together, but they serve separate purposes within a sentence. Thus, commas should be used with parentheses only if the sentence would require a comma without the parentheses.



Is it okay to put parentheses in research title?

Parentheses are half moon brackets that enclose additional information within a sentence. Since they are usually used to enclose information that is not necessary to make the sentence work and titles are meant to be succinct they are not usually used in a title.

Can you use brackets in academic writing?

Writers use brackets in academic writing to add information to a quote without changing the meaning of the sentence. This means that the writer can add words, if necessary, to make the sentence clearer or add a correction or comment to quoted material.

What do parentheses represent?

Parentheses are punctuation marks that are used to set off information within a text or paragraph. Outside the realm of emoticons, parentheses always come in pairs. They can enclose a single word, a phrase, or even an entire sentence.

Do you capitalize words in parentheses in a title?

Parts of titles inside parentheses



Those are mostly capitalized as if the parentheses do not exist, with a few exceptions as shown below. Exceptions: “(Don’t Fear) The Reaper”. “(Don’t Fear)” could be considered optional, so “The” should be capitalised as though it were at the start of the sentence.

Should I capitalize parentheses?

Capitalizing and Punctuating Inside Parentheses. When a parenthetical phrase or sentence interrupts the middle of a sentence, do not capitalize the first letter inside the parentheses unless, of course, the word is a proper noun or proper adjective.